FOURTEEN September 1815, the galleon trade between the Philippines and Mexico ended On 14th September 1815, the galleon trade between the Philippines and Mexico ended, a few years before Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821.

The Galeon Andalucia, a replica of the 17th Century vessels that sailed between Manila and Acapulco during the galleon trade

Galleon trade became the fundamental income-generating business for Spanish colonists living in the Philippine Islands with a total of 110 Manila galleons set sail in the 250 years of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade (1565 to 1815).

The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons sailed the Pacific for nearly three centuries, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits and cultural exchange.

Positive results of the galleon trade were the intercultural exchanges between the Philippines and the Americans, symbolized by no less than the Mexican-made Virgin of Antipolo, chosen as the patroness of the sailors, who protected them from the untold perils across the Pacific.

The mango de Manila, tamarind and rice, the carabao (known by 1737 in Mexico), cockfighting, Chinese tea and textiles, fireworks display, tuba (coconut wine) making came to Mexico through the trans-Pacific trade.

In exchange, the return voyage brought innumerable and valuable flora and fauna into the Philippines: avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, horses and cattle.

The moro-moro, Moriones festival, and the image of the Black Nazarene of Quiapo, were also of Mexican origins.

The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade began when Andres de Urdaneta in convoy under Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, discovered a return route from Cebu City to Mexico in 1565.

21 September 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law

President Ferdinand E. Marcos announcing the declaration of Martial Law on September 23, 1972

On 21st September 1972, President Ferdinand E. Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law, suspending the civil rights and imposing military authority. Congress was also abolished.

Marcos explained that martial law was intended to suppress civil strife and the threat of communist takeover following the series of bombings in Manila.

The attempt on the life of then Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile gave Marcos a window to declare Martial Law (Enrile would later reveal that the assassination attempt on his life was staged).

The President declared the emergency rule the day after the Enrile assassination attempt. Mr. Marcos also declared that the insurgency in the south, caused by the clashes between Muslims and Christians, was a threat to national security.

Initially, the imposition of martial law was supported by majority of Filipinos. It was viewed as a change that solved the massive corruption in the country.

Gradually, however, martial law became unpopular due to human rights abuses and excesses by the military, not to mention the incarceration of opposition leaders critical of the martial law. Journalists, student leaders and labour activists critical of the Marcos administration were also detained.

Numerous media outfits were either closed down or operated under tight control.

Businesses owned by the oligarchy were confiscated and were taken over by Marcos’ family members and close personal friends, and were allegedly used as fronts to launder proceeds from institutionalized graft and corruption in the different national governmental agencies.

Martial law was lifted on Jan. 17, 1981, although the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus continued in the autonomous regions of Western Mindanao and Central Mindanao.

21 September 1949, Romulo was elected UN Assembly President

On 21st September 1949, Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo as head of the Philippine delegation to the United Nations (UN) was elected President of fourth General Assembly. Romulo received the votes of the representatives of all 59 nations except those of Russia and its satellite states which give 5 votes to the Czech Foreign Minister and the vote from Yugoslavia being declared invalid.

Romulo later served as President of the Security Council on four different occasions when the Philippines was elected to the Council.

Chairman of the six standing committees of the Assembly with Assembly President Carlos Romulo of the Philippines (seated)

Carlos P. Romulo was also nominated for the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize. According to Nobel Prize, Romulo was nominated “for his contribution in international cooperation, in particular on questions on undeveloped areas, and as president for UN’s 4th General Assembly”.

23 September 1762, the British flotilla landed in Manila

Sir William Draper, photo credit: Wikipedia Commons

On the evening of 23rd September 1762, the British flotilla landed in Manila Bay, which marked the beginning of the British invasion of the Philippines.

Admiral Samuel Cornish led the expedition to capture Manila, which at that time was a Spanish colony. General William Draper, who was in the service of the British East India Company, commanded the troops.

The English fleet entered the Manila Bay in the form of a half circle stretching from Cavite to the middle of the Bay, 13 ships in all.

The following day, 24th September 1762, Draper and Cornish sent an edict to the Filipinos announcing that they need have no fear of the British fleet, provided that they do not join the Spaniards or assist them in any way. They will be received under British protection; their women and children will be free from outrages; full prices will be paid them for food; they will be free to go and come as they please; and freedom of worship will be conserved to them. If they do, on the contrary, aid the Spanish, then they must fear the punishment that will be inflicted.

The British occupation of the Philippines was short-lived as the Seven Years’ War ended in Europe on February 10, 1763 with the signing of the peace treaty in Paris (Treaty of 1763).

The Spanish troops re-entered Manila May 31, 1764, possession of the city being taken by Don Simon de Anda, since the new governor ad interim, Francisco de la Torre, was sick. The British vessels left the bay for India on June 10 and 11, 1764.

29 September 1898, the Malolos Congress ratified the Declaration of Independence

On 29th September 1898, the Malolos Congress ratified the June 12, 1898 Act of the Declaration of Independence proclaimed in Kawit, Cavite.

It all begun on 15th September 1898, when the revolutionary congress convened in Barasoain Church in Malolos which also decided to draft a constitution. This constitution would become the Malolos Constitution of 1899.

Opening of the Malolos Congress on September 15, 1898.

The new constitution was approved by the revolutionary congress on 20th January 1899, and sanctioned by President Emilio Aguinaldo on 21st January 1899.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *